As a country that attaches great importance to education, Japanese universities are divided into three categories: national, public and private. What is the difference between them? Do you really know?
Don't worry! Today's editor will help you "recognize" them
National University is a university run or established by the government of a country. Japan's national universities now exist in the form of national university legal person.
As of April 1, 2020, there are 86 national universities in Japan, including 4 universities.
Among the 86 universities, the "national university legal person with the highest level of educational research activities in the world" designated by the Ministry of Arts is the "designated national university legal person". By October 2020, there are nine schools, namely Northeastern University, Tokyo University, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo University of technology, Ichihashi University, Tsukuba University, Nagoya University, Kyoto University and Osaka University.
The income of Japan's national universities depends largely on the state's expenditure, that is, taxes. Based on the data of Pingcheng in the past 25 years, the Ministry of Finance calculated that, excluding the income of affiliated hospitals, about 68% of the expenses of national universities come from state expenditures such as operating expenses, subsidies, etc., and their own income accounts for 33% of the total (including 4.3% of the income from deposit, 14.7% of the income from tuition, and 10.8% of the income from research such as industry university cooperation) Compared with 10% of private universities, the difference is very significant.
In addition, some critics think that it has nothing to do with the competitiveness and productivity of state-owned and public universities, and has nothing to do with the possible fields of private universities. Taking low tuition as an advantage of investment tax is a kind of oppression on private universities.
Most national universities have operational autonomy. The number of students in national universities accounts for about 20% of all college students. In addition, the national short-term universities will be abolished by 2017 (Heicheng 29).